What is lipemic specimen?

Lipemia is defined as visible turbidity in serum or plasma samples due to the presence of lipoprotein particles, especially chylomicrons. The most common cause of turbidity is a high concentration of triglycerides [1,2].

What causes a lipemic specimen?

The most common cause of lipemia is that the patient is not fasting and has eaten close in time to the blood draw. This effect is most dramatic when the patient has consumed a meal with high fat content. However, nonfasting on its own usually does not result in enough lipemia to significantly impact laboratory tests.

What does it mean when a blood sample is lipemic?

Blood is composed of cells and plasma (or serum), a liquid that is normally pale yellow in colour and transparent. Lipemia is a measure of serum transparency. … High levels of blood lipids, mostly triglycerides, increase serum turbidity.

How do you clear a lipemic sample?

Conclusions: High-speed centrifugation (10,000×g for 15 minutes) can be used instead of ultracentrifugation to remove lipemia in serum/plasma samples.

What does lipemia affect?

Conclusion: Lipemia causes clinically significant interferences for phosphorus, creatinine, total protein and calcium measurement and those interferences could be effectively removed by ultracentrifugation.

How do you prevent lipemia?

One way to avoid grossly lipemic samples is to ask that patients fast for 12 hours before sample collection. If this is impractical, a mechanical-based means of clot detection should be available when samples are grossly lipemic.

Why is lipemic sample not used in serologic testing?

The possible mechanism of interference by hemolysis or lipemia in serologic assays may be as follows: Interference with antigen-antibody reaction. … Very severe lipemia may make it difficult for accurate volume measurement in assays requiring precise sample measurement. Interference with color measurement in assays.

What affect does Lipaemia have on the measurement of Haemoglobin?

Lipemia interferes with hematology tests by the following mechanism by light scattering. This affects the following results: Hemoglobin and hemoglobin-related indices: Results in falsely increased absorbance readings of hemoglobin, causing a falsely high measurement.

What does a high lipemia index mean?

Conclusion: A markedly elevated lipemia index in a clear serum sample measured on Siemens analyzers Dimension indicates a high possibility for the presence of a paraprotein in the sample.

What CBC results are affected by lipemia?

Lipemia interferes with the accurate determination of hemoglobin, or Hb, by spectroscopy on most hematology analyzers, but it does not generally interfere with determinations (especially impedance based) of red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and platelet count.

What do you do with lipemic samples?

A recommended procedure for treating lipemic samples is centrifugation using ultracentrifuge which effectively removes lipids and allows measurement of large number of analytes (42,43). However, due to the high cost, this equipment it is not available in a large number of laboratories.

What is the normal appearance of serum after centrifugation?

After centrifugation, what remains is a clear, straw-colored liquid on top of a dark red clot (the clumped blood cells tangled in the fibrin mesh). This straw-colored, acellular liquid is called serum (see Figure 2). FIGURE 2: Serum – the acellular fraction of blood that has been allowed to clot.

Is lipemic serum acceptable for chemistry testing?

Conclusion. Lipemia is a well-known interferer in clinical chemistry. One cannot avoid lipemia, but fortunately, severe lipemia is a rare phenomenon in the laboratory, and for assessment of some analytes in a lower degree of lipemia, use of serum blank eliminates the need for ultracentrifuge.

Why do I have fat in my blood?

Most people have high levels of fat in their blood because they eat too much high-fat food. Some people have high fat levels because they have an inherited disorder. High lipid levels may also be caused by medical conditions such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, kidney disease, liver disease and stress.

Does lipemia affect cholesterol?

These samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) before and after ultra centrifugation/airfuge. Results: There was a positive correlation between the lipemia and the false high TC and HDL-C.

Why does lipemia in specimen cause an inaccurate hemoglobin value?

Lipemic specimens contain high levels of triglycerides consisting of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein particles, which in turn cause turbidity. This turbidity interferes with light scatter and the absorption of light, resulting in a false increase of hemoglobin determinations.

What is a hemolyzed blood sample?

A hemolyzed test result or ‘haemolysis’ can happen when the red blood cells in the sample burst. When this happens, it is usually not possible to get a test result. … finger prick sample or venous blood draw) and where it was collected (eg. at the doctor’s office, self-collection or in hospital).

Can a hemolyzed serum sample be used for serology?

Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells, which can have an effect on laboratory results. Serum samples containing more than 100 mg/dL of hemoglobin can cause non-specific binding in serologic tests. Therefore, serologic testing is not recommended for a serum sample containing more than this amount of hemoglobin.

What causes specimen hemolysis?

Hemolysis resulting from phlebotomy may be caused by incorrect needle size, improper tube mixing, incorrect filling of tubes, excessive suction, prolonged tourniquet, and difficult collection. … The impact of in vitro hemolysis on measured potassium concentrations is well documented.

Does lipemia affect platelets?

Lipemia does not affect blood safety. However, the appearance of lipemic plasma does not conform to the appearance of normal plasma. The Macao Blood Transfusion Service will discard plasma and platelets components which are markedly lipemic but the red blood cells can still be used for transfusion.

What causes specimen hemolysis icterus and lipemia?

Blood specimens with hemolysis, icterus or lipemia (HIL) are often encountered in routine clinical laboratory practice. … An interferent may originate from blood cells or intravenous fluid, for example, the release of potassium from hemolyzed blood cells can increase plasma and serum concentrations of potassium.

Does lipemia affect potassium?

Background: Lipemia affects electrolyte concentration obtained by indirect ion selective electrode (ISE) method, … samples for the major electrolytes i.e., sodium and potassium.

Does lipemia affect bun?

BUN was the only analyte that was affected by gross lipemia at triglyceride concentrations of 2100 mg/dL with ordinal values of “+++++” flag level. Visual inspection results for hemolysis and lipemia showed good agreement between three technologists and were consistent with the corresponding ordinal values.

Why is prolonged contact of serum or plasma with the blood cells avoided?

Avoid prolonged contact of serum or plasma with blood cells, prompt centrifugation is essential. … Concentration changes Changes in drawn blood samples from the original component concentrations that occur from evaporation or dilution.

What causes lipemia in dogs?

Lipemic serum is caused by excessive concentrations of triglyceride, as opposed to cholesterol, and is the type of hyperlipidemia most commonly recognized in companion animal medicine.

How many times can the patient treat with plasmapheresis?

A: There is no set number of plasma exchanges performed, although typically patients receive between three and seven exchanges, each of which takes 2-4 hours. The number of treatments can be guided by the clinical recovery, or sometimes a preset number of exchanges are performed.

What is the difference between blood and serum?

Serum is the liquid that remains after the clotting of blood. Whereas, plasma is the liquid that remains when anticoagulant is added to prevent clotting.

Difference between Plasma and Serum.

Plasma Serum
Anticoagulant is required to obtain plasma from the blood sample. Anticoagulant is not required to separate the serum from the blood sample.

What does it mean when blood is drawn and it clots?

Within seconds of cutting a blood vessel, the damaged tissue causes platelets to become ‘sticky’ and clump together around the cut. These ‘activated’ platelets and the damaged tissue release chemicals. These chemicals then react with other chemicals and proteins in the plasma, called clotting factors.

What are the warning signs of high cholesterol?

What are the warning signs of high cholesterol?

  • Nausea.
  • Numbness.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Extreme fatigue.
  • Chest pain or angina.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Numbness or coldness in extremities.
  • High blood pressure.

What are the symptoms of high cholesterol and triglycerides?

Symptoms of high blood cholesterol and triglycerides

For instance, symptoms may come in the form of heart disease symptoms, such as chest pain (angina) or nausea and fatigue. A heart attack or stroke may result from uncontrolled cholesterol, among other things.

How can I lower my cholesterol in 30 days?

5 Easy Steps to Reduce Cholesterol in 30 Days

  1. Switch to a Mediterranean Diet. …
  2. Increase Exercise. …
  3. Supplement Fiber. …
  4. Lose Weight. …
  5. Drink Alcohol in Moderation. …
  6. Let South Denver Cardiology Associates Help.

Is lipemia the same as hyperlipidemia?

Because cholesterol and triacylglycerols must reside within lipoproteins in plasma, hyperlipidemia is synonymous with hyperlipoproteinemia. Lipemia is a term denoting that hyperlipidemia is severe enough that the plasma looks milky (i.e., lactescent).

How can I lower my triglyceride level?

What’s the best way to lower triglycerides?

  1. Exercise regularly. Aim for at least 30 minutes of physical activity on most or all days of the week. …
  2. Avoid sugar and refined carbohydrates. …
  3. Lose weight. …
  4. Choose healthier fats. …
  5. Limit how much alcohol you drink.

How does lipemia affect test results?

How Does Lipemia Impact Laboratory Testing? Lipemia results from sample turbidity from accumulation of lipoprotein particles and can interfere with laboratory analysis by several mechanisms. First, lipemia can increase absorption of light and thereby decrease light transmittance used for spectrophotometric analysis.

What color is gel barrier tube?

Gel-barrier Tubes.

Gel-barrier (mottled red/gray, gold, or cherry red-top) tubes contain clot activator and gel for separating serum from cells but include no anticoagulant.